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R-410A refrigerant ratio is constant, used in commercial air-conditioning
With the signing of the Montreal Agreement in 1987, CFC refrigerants (such as R-11, R-12, etc.) have been completely banned due to their strong damaging effects on atmospheric ozone. HCFC refrigerants (such as R-12, etc.) Although it does little damage to the atmospheric ozone layer, it is still banned for a limited period of time. The research and development of new refrigerants with superior performance and non-damaging effects on the atmospheric ozone layer is a common issue faced by the q* refrigeration and air-conditioning industry.
In 1991, AlliedSignal (now Honeywell) developed a HFC refrigerant named Genetron@, which was later named R-410A by the American Society of Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). Carrier cooperated with Honeywell in the United States to develop R-410A refrigerant for household air-conditioning units, and officially registered the Puron@ trademark in 1991. For this reason, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) awarded Carrier and Honeywell the atmospheric ozone layer protection award in 1996. So far, R-410A has been successfully used in the field of household air-conditioning for more than ten years. The successful launch of the masterpiece series 30RB/RQ vortex air-cooled water chiller (heat pump) unit has pioneered the use of R-410A in the field of commercial large central air conditioning units for the first time in the world.
R-410A is a mixed refrigerant composed of R-32/R-125 with a mass percentage of 50%/50%. When R-410A undergoes a phase change (evaporation or condensation), the ratio of the two components always remains constant.
Temperature slip refers to the value of the phase change temperature when the refrigerant mixture undergoes a phase change under a constant pressure. For non-azeotropic mixed refrigerants, the phase transition temperature will change greatly with the phase transition process, so the heat exchanger must be optimized, otherwise the temperature slip will have a serious impact on the refrigeration performance of the equipment. The physical properties of R-410A are close to a single refrigerant, and the temperature slip is less than 0.17°C, which is almost negligible. The heat exchanger does not need to be specifically optimized for temperature slip, and it is also very easy to operate in the daily maintenance of the equipment.
Ozone Layer Dissipation
R-410A is an HFC refrigerant, does not contain chlorine, and has no damaging effect on the atmospheric ozone layer. The ozone layer dissipation potential coefficient (ODP value) is 0, according to The Montreal Protocol has no period of prohibition, and the ODP value of R-22 is 0.05, which falls within the scope of prohibition.
The influence of refrigerant on q* warming includes two aspects: direct influence and indirect influence: direct influence refers to the direct influence of refrigerant on q* The impact of warming, and the indirect impact refers to the impact of CO2 emissions produced by the electrical energy consumed by the refrigeration system on the warming of q*. Studies have shown that indirect impacts account for about 95% of the entire impact, while direct impacts only account for 5%. For this reason, the TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Lmpact) concept proposed by the researchers is used to comprehensively measure the comprehensive influence of refrigerants on q* warming. In 1999, Gopalnarayanan comprehensively studied eight R-22 alternative refrigerants and found that R-410A has the best TEWI value of z*. This conclusion is also supported by other research results in ASHRAE publications.
Research shows that under the same operating conditions, the average efficiency of piston and swirl chillers using R-410A is about 6% higher than those using R-22 . This is mainly due to the following characteristics of R-410A: s*First, the gas-liquid heat capacity and dynamic viscosity of R-410A are better than R-22, which determines that R-410A has more heat transfer performance (R- The evaporation heat transfer coefficient of 410A is about 30% higher than that of R-22), and the heat exchange temperature difference is smaller, which means that the unit can operate at a lower condensing temperature and a slightly higher evaporation temperature, and the cooling efficiency of the unit is therefore improved; secondly, Under the same working conditions, R-410A has higher working pressure and higher refrigerant density. Under the same cooling capacity, the volume flow of R-410A refrigerant is less than R-22, and the resistance loss of the system pipeline is greatly reduced (R-410A evaporation and condensation The resistance loss is about 40% lower than that of R-22), so the unit also has better cooling efficiency.
R-410A refrigerant has a condensation pressure of about 26kg/cm2 and an evaporation pressure of about 7kg/cm2. The average working pressure is about 60% higher than that of R-22. Therefore, R-410A puts forward more stringent requirements than R-22 in terms of system reliability design. In view of the high working pressure of R-410A, Carrier’s new masterpiece series selects a vortex compressor specially designed for R-410A. The refrigeration system pipes are all welded, and electronic expansion valves and pressure sensors are used. Abandon the traditional capillary design, completely eliminate the possibility of refrigerant leakage. In addition, since 1995, the successful operation experience of more than 1,000,000 air-conditioning units using R-410A across q* shows that the reliability of the R-410A refrigeration system is even better than R-22 in a sense.
According to the ASHRAE 34-2001 standard, the safety level of R-410A refrigerant belongs to A1 level, which is safe and reliable.
In summary, R-410A is a safe, efficient, non-toxic, non-flammable, environment-first mixed refrigerant, and it is an ideal choice for R-22 alternatives.
*There are two other refrigerants with slightly higher TEWI than R-410A, but they are flammable, and the possibility of actual commercial use is unlikely. Considering the refrigeration performance and reliability of the system, R-410A is the best alternative to R-22.
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