Of these six commonly used refrigerants, four of them are flammable and explosive!
The refrigerant, also known as the refrigeration working fluid, is the working medium of the refrigeration cycle. It uses the phase change of the refrigerant to transfer heat. The refrigerant absorbs heat when it vaporizes in the evaporator and releases heat when it condenses in the condenser. At present, there are more than 80 kinds of substances that can be used as refrigerants, the most commonly used are ammonia, freons, water and a few hydrocarbons. The following six types are also the most commonly used models, but note that four of them are explosive refrigerants. Be careful when using them.
R22 refrigerant is also a Freon refrigerant, the chemical name is difluorochloromethane, and the chemical formula is CHF2Cl.
R22 refrigerant is also a medium-pressure and medium-temperature refrigerant, with a boiling point temperature of -40.8°C, a freezing point of -160°C, a critical temperature of 96°C, and a critical pressure of 4.974MPa. R22 does not burn or explode, has low toxicity, but has strong penetrating ability, and leakage is difficult to find. The unit volume of R22 is similar to that of ammonia refrigerant. Although the lowest temperature that can be obtained can reach -80°C, it is not economical.
R410a is a HFCs refrigeration made by mixing two working fluids of R32 and R125 at a mass fraction of 50% and 50% Agent. The R410A phase transition temperature slip is less than 0.2°C, so there is no need to recharge the refrigerant if it leaks. The capacity and pressure of 410a refrigerant are higher than R22, and the operating pressure is 50%-60% higher. The operating noise of R410a is significantly lower than that of R22 compressor by 2-4 decibels.
Due to the high pressure and high density of R401A, the pipe diameter of the refrigerant can be reduced a lot, and the compressor size and displacement can also be greatly reduced. At the same time, the high thermal conductivity of R410A liquid phase and low viscosity make it obvious Better transmission characteristics than R22.
R32 is the abbreviation of difluoromethane, R32 is colorless, odorless, slightly burning (A2 level), the limit of combustion in the air It is 14%~31%, it will burn and explode in case of open fire.
In addition, R32 also has a lower viscosity coefficient and higher thermal conductivity. Although R32 has many advantages, R32 is a flammable and explosive refrigerant; air-conditioning installation and maintenance are inherently dangerous work, and now coupled with the uncertain factors of R32, safety issues have to be considered.
Attention! R32 refrigerant needs to be evacuated and open flames need to be forbidden!
R290 (propane), also known as cold coal, is a new type of environmentally friendly refrigerant, mainly used in central air conditioning, heat pump air conditioning, Household air conditioners and other small refrigeration equipment. As a hydrocarbon refrigerant, R290 has an ODP value of 0 and a GWP value of less than 20. Compared with R600a, R134a u0026 R404A, R290 has outstanding advantages in refrigeration performance. Due to its flammable and explosive characteristics, the amount of infusion is limited, and the safety level is A3.
Attention! R290 must be evacuated. Air mixing can form an explosive mixture. There is a danger of burning and explosion when exposed to heat sources and open flames. Open flames must be used!
R600a, isobutane, is a new type of hydrocarbon refrigerant with excellent performance, derived from natural ingredients, does not damage the ozone layer , No greenhouse effect, green and environmental protection. It is characterized by large latent heat of evaporation and strong cooling capacity; good flow performance, low conveying pressure, low power consumption, and slow load temperature recovery. Compatible with various compressor lubricants. It is a colorless gas at room temperature, and a colorless and transparent liquid under its own pressure. R600a is mainly used to replace R12 refrigerant, and is now mostly used in household refrigerator equipment.
R600a is also a flammable gas. It can form an explosive mixture when mixed with air. It may burn and explode when exposed to heat sources and open flames. It reacts violently on contact with oxidants. Its vapor is heavier than air and can spread to a considerable distance at a lower place, and will ignite when it encounters a fire source.
6. R717 (ammonia)
R717 (ammonia) refrigerant. Ammonia is a medium temperature refrigerant. Pure ammonia has no adverse effect on lubricating oil, but When there is moisture, it will reduce the lubricating effect of the refrigerating oil. Copper and copper alloys are not used for pipes and valves in the ammonia refrigeration system. R717 (ammonia) synthesis technology is mature, easy to prepare, low in price, does not destroy the ozone layer, and has no greenhouse effect. However, the ammonia vapor is colorless and has a strong irritating odor. Ammonia is highly toxic to the human body. When ammonia splashes on the skin, it can cause frostbite.
When the volume of ammonia vapor in the air reaches 0.5-0.6%, it can cause an explosion. Therefore, the concentration of ammonia in the air in the equipment room must not exceed 0.02 mg/L. Ammonia is not easy to burn at room temperature, but when heated to 350°C, it will be decomposed into nitrogen and hydrogen. The hydrogen will explode when mixed with oxygen in the air.
Almost most early refrigerants are flammable or toxic, or a combination of both, and some have strong corrosion and instability, or Some pressures are too high and accidents happen frequently. Mechanical refrigeration appeared in the mid-nineteenth century. Jacob Perkins built the first practical machine in 1834. It uses ether as a refrigerant and is a vapor compression system. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and ammonia (NH3) were first used as refrigerants in 1866 and 1873, respectively. In the early twentieth century, the refrigeration system began to be used as an air conditioning method for large buildings. The Merlin Building in San Antonio, Texas was the first fully air-conditioned high-rise office building. In the 1930s, chlorofluorocarbon CFCs and hydrochlorofluorocarbon HCFCs refrigerants appeared. In the 1930s, a series of halogenated hydrocarbon refrigerants appeared one after another, and DuPont named them Freon. These materials have excellent properties, are non-toxic and non-flammable, and can adapt to different temperature regions, which significantly improves the performance of the refrigerator.
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